Rosemary Island is an island in the Dampier Archipelago in Western Australia’s Pilbara region. Together with Enderby Island, it constitutes Class A Nature Reserve 36915, which is part of a proposed national park. Archaeologists from the University of Western Australia uncovered ancient rock shelters on Rosemary Island, dating back between 8000 and 9000 years. They could be Australia’s first known domestic constructions. Archaeologists discovered engravings on Rosemary Island and West Lewis Island left by crews of American whaling ships in the 1850s. In several cases, the engravings were created over ancient Aboriginal rock art. Since 1986, volunteers have been monitoring the hawksbill sea turtle, a critically endangered species that live on the island.