The Indian Ocean is distinguished by a number of characteristics. It is the heart of the large-scale Tropical Warm Pool, which influences the climate on a regional and global scale when it interacts with the atmosphere.
Asia obstructs heat export and inhibits the Indian Ocean thermocline from venting. That continent also produces the greatest monsoon on Earth, causing large-scale seasonal fluctuations in ocean currents, including the reversal of the Somali Current and Indian Monsoon Current. Upwelling occurs in the Northern Hemisphere between the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, and in the Southern Hemisphere north of the trade winds. The Indonesian Throughflow is a one-of-a-kind Equatorial link to the Pacific. A monsoon climate affects the climate north of the equator. From October to April, strong northeast winds blow; from May to October, south and west winds prevail. The fierce Monsoon in the Arabian Sea provides rain to the Indian subcontinent.
Winds are normally calmer in the southern hemisphere, however summer storms near Mauritius can be strong. When the monsoon winds shift, cyclones can form off the coasts of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.
Summer accounts for around 80% of total annual rainfall in India, and the country is so reliant on it that many civilizations perished when the Monsoon failed in the past.
The Indian Ocean is the warmest ocean on the planet. Long-term ocean temperature records suggest that the Indian Ocean warmed at a rate of roughly 1.2 degrees Celsius between 1901 and 2012. According to research, human-caused greenhouse warming, as well as changes in the frequency and severity of El Niño episodes, are a cause of this severe warming in the Indian Ocean. The Indian Ocean south of the Equator gains heat from June to October, during the austral winter, and loses heat from November to March, during the austral summer.